Thursday, April 19, 2018

Interaction Styles communicating with any machine to perform task

Interaction Styles communicating with any machine to perform task

Interaction Styles

When you are communicating with any machine to perform task on that system is called interaction. Here our concern is with computer system so we will talk about computer.
The translation/understanding between user and computer is called interaction. Translation means converting natural language into computer understandable language (machine language) which is 0 & 1 and machine language to the natural language (human understandable language) which makes it possible to generate communication between user and computer and to perform specific tasks i.e. playing music, opening files, writing documents and many more..

There are different interaction styles which are using nowadays in different organization. The interaction style depends on the requirements of the organization that what interaction style they provide for their employees. Following are some interaction styles:

1.     GUI (Graphical user interface).
It is the common interface use most widely in all over the world. Because of its user friendly environment, un-educated people or people with low education can also interact with it and understand it.

·         It is user friendly
·         Easy to remember
·         No need of remembering commands as there is no command used, you can open  folders, files through mouse.
·         Easy to use
·         With the help of icons, it is possible to open a software program quickly as compared to opening it by going to their root directory.

2.     CLI (Command Line Interaction).
Command line interaction is quite different from GUI. CLI is based on commands, you have to type commands. i.e. DOS (Disk Operating System) which is based on command and if you want to open a file you have to type command for it.

·         It is difficult for normal people to understand and to operate
·         Based on command
·       You have to memorize command which is very difficult to remember hundreds           of   commands.
·         Not user friendly
·         It can’t be hacked easily, on that bases it is more secure than that of the GUI.
·         It is suitable for remote access.

3.     Menu-Style Interaction. 
In this style of interaction the computer provide a list of different options from which user can select his/her desired option. i.e. pop-down or pop-up menus in GUI, when you right click on the screen a list of option opens from which you can select different options.

·         It has options to select
·         Based on text or visuals
·         It is easy to recognize
·         Menu-style interaction is in hierarchical structure

4.     Natural Language Interaction.
It is also called speaking interaction. Natural language interaction is based on natural language. You have to speak to the computer to perform tasks. It is AI (Artificial intelligence) technique i.e. robots. Robots can respond to human by speaking.
Another example is windows 10 Cortona which respond to the user when user speaks. Natural language interaction uses NLP (Natural language processing) technique in which the natural language is translated to machine language using specific programs and techniques. The NLP have associated dictionary which it use for understanding natural language.
  
5.     Questions-Answering Dialog.
 This type of interaction is used by the organization which provide online tests and quizzes     for students or other employees. i.e. when you want to take Computer certificate online,   you have to answer the questions which the organization provide online. After passing you   will get your certificate.

6.     Query Dialog.
Query dialog interaction is based on natural language style phrase. It is just like Natural Language Interaction but the difference is that in query dialog you have to write/type query(natural language phrase) while in Natural Language Interaction you have to speak. Query dialog example is database, google search engine etc.

7.     Form Filling Interaction.
Form filling interaction is used in online registration for different organization. You have to fill the form and provide the information which is required for the organization. i.e. University registration, Nadra online form.

8.     WIMP interaction.
It is also called widgets. WIMP stands for “Windows Icons Menus Pointers”.It is the combination of four (4) types of interaction. The common example of WIMP is windows 7, 8, 10 which is the combination of all these four (4) types of interaction. These windows operating systems uses four integrated interaction styles e.g Windows, icons, menus and pointer which is Explained below:
          Windows:  
·         It is the area of the screen which we see.
·         It can be hide/unhide
·         Can be resize
·         Consist of task bar, title bar, control buttons etc
          Icons:
·         It is use to shrink (reduce the size) window
·         It may be texts or pictures

          Menus:
·         List of options
·         Pop-up or pop-down
·         Choice of selection
          Pointers:
·         It is similar to icons
·         It provide guidlines
·         i.e mouse pointer.

  9.     Point & Click Interaction.
Touch screen interaction is point and click interaction. You can open files and folders by touching the screen. Another example is google map where you point the position which you want to open and click it to zoom and expand.

  10.     3D Interaction.
3D stands for 3-dimension. 3D interaction is the advance technology in which you can interact with 3D environment also called virtual reality which looks like real environment. i.e. 3D games etc.
This type of interaction is also useful in training soldiers, drivers, pilots by providing specific 3D environment.If you want to know about Virtual Reality please comment your ideas..




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Tuesday, April 17, 2018

What are the three major multiplexing techniques?

Multiplexing Techiques

Multiplexing is the process/technique of dividing single channel into multiple portion to send/transfer multiple data simultaneously at same time.

Multiplexing techniques is very efficient/effective technology which reduces the cost of the cables. You don’t have to buy unique cable for each type of data. For example, if you want to send audio, video and documents etc, you don’t have to specify a cable for every type of data, rather you can multiplexing technique to send all these three types of data using a single cable simultaneously.

The following diagram shows the multiplexing technique:
MUX & DE MUX

In multiplexing, two devices are used Mux and De Mux

Mux:

Mux stands for Multiplexer. It is responsible to multiplex (combine) multiple links to transfer in a single channel as shown in the above diagram. Commonly the multiplexer is specify at the sender side because if the sender wants to send different types of data , it has to be multiplexed first to send into a single channel.

De Mux:

De mux stands for De Multiplexer. It is responsible to separate the multiplexed links from a single channel into different separate links.  Commonly the de-multiplexer is specify at the receiver side because when the receiver receive different types of data from a single channel , it needs to be separate or de-multiplex.



There are two types of multiplexing

Analog :

Analog multiplexing is sub categorized into two types of multiplexing      
  1. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).
  2. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM).

Digital :

Digital multiplexing includes Time Division Multiplexing (TDM).

1. Wavelength Division Multiplexing : ( WDM )

In simple words the multiplexing on the base of wavelength is the wavelength division Multiplexing. It is an analog technique. WDM multiplex different numbers of optical light wavelength to transfer in a single fiber.  Each wavelength make a virtual fiber to transfer in a fiber so that it depends on the speed (frequency) of the wavelength. The wavelength of high speed will reach first and wavelength with low speed will reach later.

WDM is same as FDM but the difference is that the Multiplexing and De Multiplexing of WDM includes light wavelengths while that of FDM includes frequencies.
WDM
The best example of WDM is the prism , which shows the various colors after De Multiplexing the light.
WDM (Prism)
You can see that a single channel of light is divided into different colors using prism. If you pass the different number of colors from the side of the single light, it will show single light channel on the opposite side.

Wavelength division multiplexing is sub divided into two types:

1. Uni-Directional WDM:

In uni-directional WDM , data is send only from one side and receive on the other side. Multiplexing of the wavelength occurs on the sender side and de-multiplexing of the wavelengths take place on the receiver side.

The diagram below shows uni-directional WDM in which sender multiplex the wavelength and receiver de-multiplex it.
Uni-directional WDM

2. Bi-Directional WDM:

As the name shows the bi-directional mean both sides, In bi-directional WDM the wavelength can be send from both side which means that both sides (sender  & receiver) can do multiplexing and de-multiplexing.

The diagram below shows Bi-directional WDM in which sender and receiver both can multiplex and de-multiplex the wavelength
 Bi-directional WDM

2. Frequency Division Multiplexing : ( FDM )

Multiplexing on the base of frequency is called Frequency division multiplexing ( FDM ).  It is an analog technique of Multiplexing different frequencies of different links to pass through a single cable.
The link having high frequency will reach first and that is the link having low frequency will reach later as It depends on the frequency.

The diagram below shows the frequencies that are multiplexed in a single channel and by reaching its destination, it is then De multiplex to forward to the right destination.
FDM

3. Time Division Multiplexing : ( TDM )

Time division multiplexing is a digital technique of combining different links to transfer through a single channel. A single channel is divided into different time slots in which different type of data is sending on the base of time. Every link have specific time for transferring.

See the picture below to understand it clearly.
TDM
For example:  the slot 1 is for downloading, slot 2 is for youtube, slot 3 is for searching and slot 4 is for facebook. When downloading completes the slot 1 (downloading slot) will go empty. Similarly when slot 2 finishes the slot  2 will go empty.

Reference Book: Data Communication And Networking 2nd Edition
Reference Site: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplexing
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Monday, April 2, 2018

What is MAC Address?

MAC Address

MAC stands for “Media Access control”. It is also called Physical address, Burn-in  address, Hardware address or Unique address.
MAC address is 48 bit address which is labeled on your system NIC (Network Interface Card). MAC address depends on the number of NIC card , if your system have one NIC card then your system has one MAC address similarly if your system have three NIC cards then your system has three MAC addresses.
For example: one MAC address is of LAN card , one is of Bluetooth and one is of Wireless connection.

How to find MAC address ?

To find your system’s MAC address , follow the simple steps
  1.         Open CMD
  2.         Type ipconfig/all
  3.       Hit enter


      There you will see your MAC address. Following picture shows MAC address of my system


MAC address is in Hexadecimal digits like “28-80-23-00-EA-A3” where A=10 , B=11 ….. F=15. It is divided into two portion of 24 bits. See the following picture



The first three pairs are called OUI (Organizational Unique Identifier). Every organization have their own unique OUI for all of its products . For Example “The first three pairs of all HP products must be same” in the same way the first three digits of all DELL products also must be the same.
The second portion is called NIC (Network Interface Controller) which is specific. It cannot be duplicated for other products for example if one HP laptop has NIC portion “00-EA-A3” then this address can never be used for other HP laptop.


To find which company my MAC address related to :
  • 1      Open google
  • 2      Search “MAC Vendor lookup”
  • 3      Paste your MAC address their


You will get your company name which your MAC address related to.
If you want to get all the information related to your MAC address i.e. where my MAC address developed etc , you can check it by going to the following website


There you can paste your MAC address in the given box and it will show your MAC address information.

NOTE:


MAC address can be used for tracking. It can track your location as it is labeled on your NIC card and which can show your location.

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Wednesday, March 28, 2018

What is Network Mode and the best preferred network mode is?

What is Network Mode?

Network Mode enables to you switch between different network like UMTS, LTE, WCDMA, GSM, EDGE etc. The switching can be done automatically or you have to select preferred network. You can check in image below the network mode for Android (lollipop). Now here we have four Option that we are going to discuss.
Mobile Network Mode

 

GSM Only

GSM only means 2G only. That's mean your mobile will look for only 2G signals whether you are in 2G network area or not. GSM (2G) will provide slow internet connection and it is good for voice services.

WCDMA or UMTS Only

WCDMA or UMTS both are 3G network and it allows you surf internet faster then 2G. Using this mode your mobile will look only for 3G signal. Use this option with care because still 3G is not available in some countries.

WCDMA/GSM (Auto Connect)

Using this mode user allows mobile user to switch between WCDMA and GSM. If WCDMA (3G) signal is not available then mobile will automatically look for 2G signals. Sometime device switch the mode from one to another because of low signals.

LTE/WCDMA/GSM (Auto Connect)

In simple terms LTE means 4G. If the above mode option is available in your smart phone it means your device is 4G supportive. LTE Provide fast Internet speed as compared to 3G and 4G. Using this user allows device to switch automatically between LTE, WCDMA, and GSM. Same case here the switching occurs on the basis of network availability and signal strength.

what is the best preferred network mode?

Best preferred Network Mode is LTE/WCDMA/GSM because you allow device to select best and strong Network for you but the disadvantage is it will consume battery 🔋. In case you are not using internet on your device you I will recommend you to select GSM Only because it will save your battery and GSM is almost available everywhere.

how to change my phone network?

Everyday new devices are coming to market. These devices have different method to change their mode so will go general but you can google "How to change Network Mode in [YOUR MODLE]" to get method for your deivce.

In general you can follow below steps that may help you

Step 1: Click on setting

Step 2: More Network

Step 3: Mobile Network

Step 4: Network Mode

That way you can change your network. Still have problem or failed to Google your answer, comment below I will look for it.

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Tuesday, March 27, 2018

What is Proxy Server And How to Configure it On Client Computer?

Proxy Server & It's Configuration On Client Computer?

A proxy Server is used to allow the users to connect to the internet and to share internet. Proxy server acts as a gateway between internal network and the internet. It provides high security for the internal network. Just like a firewall it receive requests (web page, game, songs, apps etc.) from the client by one port and forward it to the destination (internet or other network) on the other port and in the same way it receive packets from the internet , filter it and forward it to the client.

One of the main reason of using proxy server in any network is that to hide the IP addresses of the client so that it cannot be hacked easily. To make the network secure we need to use proxy server. It can block the direct access of the client to the internet and which make difficulties for the hackers to access the internal network addresses and other detailed information. There are different versions of proxy server you can download anyone of them depends on your choice.

Click Here For Downloading Wingate 9 proxy server.

The Requirements that needs for configuring the proxy server is
  1. The server will have two LAN cards.
  2. Internet Router/Modem.
  3. Proxy server software (free proxy, squid, wingate 9, privoxy etc.).
Check the below Image to understand clearly


First we have to connect the server to the internet and then we need to configure proxy server . The first LAN card (Card 1) is connected to the modem and the second LAN card (Card 2) is connected to the switch. So in this infrastructure Clients are directly connected to the switch , which is connected to the proxy server and the proxy server is connected to the internet through modem. The requests of clients passing through the switch , proxy server , modem while reaching the internet .

When the clients want to open a website , their requests will go to proxy server through switch and then to internet. In the same way the website response will pass through the proxy server and then to the clients through the switch.

The server in which we install proxy software is called the proxy server. We can install the proxy server on both server operating system and client operating system (windows XP , windows vista , windows 7 etc.) and then you can use these client operating system as a proxy server.
For configuring proxy server on client operating system, We need proxy server IP address and the HTTP port number information.

Follow these steps to configure a proxy server on window 10

1. Click on the start button.



2. Click on settings.



3. Network & Internet.



4. Now click on Proxy



5. Turn on the “Use a proxy server”.



6. In the address field enter the Proxy IP address.



7. In the port box enter 80(default port no for HTTP).



8. Now click on Save .



That's how you can configure proxy server on client operating system.

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Sunday, March 18, 2018

What is TCP/IP and What does it do?

What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP is a group of protocols designed to work together to send data across the Network. It was created by the department of defense in the 1970s. TCP/IP is made of two major protocols

1) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
2) IP (Internet Protocol)

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a reduced version of OSI Model, Where OSI is not based on a real network while TCP/IP is based on the real network. It is an open protocol suite and free to use. That's mean new protocol can be freely developed as needed.[3]

What does it do?

TCP/IP also contain another large number of protocols that are able to carry many different Network functions. The function of TCP/IP is allowing networking device (Router, Switch, Bridge etc) to communicate with each other. These protocols define rules for networking device to communicate with right devices.

TCP/IP Layers and Protocols

TCP/IP is consist of Four Layers and all TCP/IP protocols are located on the top three layer and protocols located on a bottom layer are not part of the TCP/IP. Application Layer, Transport Layer, Internet Layer and Network Layer. 
TCP/IP-Layers-and-Protocols
Image by Lynda.com

Application Layer

In this layer, we define Protocols, Services, and Process that allow programs and users to interface with the network. It also defines how programs interface with the transport layer service to use the network.

HTTP
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used to transfer web pages across the Network.

Telnet
Talent is remote access protocol allows you to access other computers through the command line. Telnet does not use encryption.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) used to transfer large file through the Network. It does not acknowledge like UDP.

TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows you to transfer small file through the Network. It uses acknowledge like TCP.

SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) allows you to control and manage Network device.

DNS
Domain Name System (DNS) used to transfer IP address to a human-readable format.

SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) allows you to share email between emails server.

Transport Layer

The transport layer provides communication session Management between host system. It defines a level of services and status of connection used when transporting data.

TCP
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.[2] TCP provides connections between clients and servers. It uses acknowledgment during communication. If an acknowledgment is not received, TCP retransmits the data.[4] 

UDP
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses a simple connectionless communication model with a minimum of protocol mechanism.[2] It does not use acknowledgment. UDP is unreliable as compared to TCP.7

RTP
Real-Time Protocol, this Protocol is used in Real-time communication like voice over IP etc.

Internet Layer

This layer is responsible for creating packets of data and then adding headers to the packets. The header contains source and destination information. Internet layer uses this information to forward the packets between host across the Network. The protocol uses by this layer is

IP
Internet Protocol (IP) is a unique address that is assigned to host. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers.[2] 
       
           Tag: Read About IP (Internet Protocol) In More Detail

ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol is used to transfer control packets across the Network. This protocol is also used by Ping and Trace Route Tool.

ARP
Address Resolution Protocol is used by IP Protocol to take a logical or IP Address and find out what is the physical or Mac Address.

RARP
Reversed Address Resolution Protocol is used when we have physical Address but we don't know IP Address.

Network Interface Layer

Sometimes called Network Access Layer. This layer specifies how data is physically sent through a network. It also explained how bits are electrically signaled by hardware. It allows hardware device to interface with network Medium. e.g Coaxial Cable, Optical cable, and Twisted Pair Cable.



[3] Reference Book: Routing and Switching Study Guide by Todd Lammle
[4] https://notes.shichao.io/unp/ch2/ 
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Friday, March 16, 2018

CCNA 1 Introduction To Networking (V5 + V6) Chapter 4 Answers

CCNA 1 Introduction To Networking (V5 + V6) Chapter 4 Answers

Hello, seekers here is solution manual for CCNA 1 Introduction to Networking (v5 + v6) Chapter 4 answers 2018. The answers are marked as red. If you find a new question or we missed a question comment it below.

1) Why are two strands of fiber used for a single fiber optic connection?
>> The two strands allow the data to travel for longer distances without degrading.
>> They prevent crosstalk from causing interference on the connection.
>> They increase the speed at which the data can travel.
>> They allow for full-duplex connectivity.

2) Which type of connector does a network interface card use?
>> DIN
>> PS-2
>> RJ-11
>> RJ-45

3) What is one advantage of using fiber optic cabling rather than copper cabling?
>> It is usually cheaper than copper cabling.
>> It is able to be installed around sharp bends.
>> It is easier to terminate and install than copper cabling.
>> It is able to carry signals much farther than copper cabling.

4) Refer to the exhibit. What is wrong with the displayed termination?
CCNA-1-Introduction-To-Networking-(V5-+-V6)-Chapter-4-Answers

>> The woven copper braid should not have been removed.
>> The wrong type of connector is being used.
>> The untwisted length of each wire is too long.
>> The wires are too thick for the connector that is used.

5) Refer to the exhibit. The PC is connected to the console port of the switch. All the other connections are made through FastEthernet links. Which types of UTP cables can be used to connect the devices?
CCNA-1-Introduction-To-Networking-(V5-+-V6)-Chapter-4-Answers

>> 1 – rollover, 2 – crossover, 3 – straight-through
>> 1 – rollover, 2 – straight-through, 3 – crossover
>> 1 – crossover, 2 – straight-through, 3 – rollover
>> 1 – crossover, 2 – rollover, 3 – straight-through

6) What are two reasons for physical layer protocols to use frame encoding techniques? (Choose two.)
>> to reduce the number of collisions on the media
>> to distinguish data bits from control bits
>> to provide better media error correction
>> to identify where the frame starts and ends
>> to increase the media throughput

7) What is indicated by the term throughput?
>> the guaranteed data transfer rate offered by an ISP
>> the capacity of a particular medium to carry data
>> the measure of the usable data transferred across the media
>> the measure of the bits transferred across the media over a given period of time
>> the time it takes for a message to get from sender to receiver

8) A network administrator notices that some newly installed Ethernet cabling is carrying corrupt and distorted data signals. The new cabling was installed in the ceiling close to fluorescent lights and electrical equipment. Which two factors may interfere with the copper cabling and result in signal distortion and data corruption? (Choose two.)
>> EMI
>> crosstalk
>> RFI
>> signal attenuation
>> extended length of cabling

9) Fill in the blank.
The term bandwidth indicates the capacity of a medium to carry data and it is typically measured in kilobits per second (kb/s) or megabits per second (Mb/s).

10) What technique is used with UTP cable to help protect against signal interference from crosstalk?
>> twisting the wires together into pairs
>> wrapping a foil shield around the wire pairs
>> encasing the cables within a flexible plastic sheath
>> terminating the cable with special grounded connectors

11) Fill in the blank.
What acronym is used to reference the data link sublayer that identifies the network layer protocol encapsulated in the frame?
>> LLC

12) Which characteristic describes crosstalk?
>> the distortion of the network signal from fluorescent lighting
>> the distortion of the transmitted messages from signals carried in adjacent wires
>> the weakening of the network signal over long cable lengths
>> the loss of wireless signal over excessive distance from the access point

13) What is the function of the CRC value that is found in the FCS field of a frame?
>> to verify the integrity of the received frame
>> to verify the physical address in the frame
>> to verify the logical address in the frame
>> to compute the checksum header for the data field in the frame

14) Fill in the blank.
A physical topology that is a variation or combination of a point-to-point, hub and spoke, or mesh topology is commonly known as a hybrid topology.

15) What is contained in the trailer of a data-link frame?
>> logical address
>> physical address
>> data
>> error detection

16) As data travels on the media in a stream of 1s and 0s how does a receiving node identify the beginning and end of a frame?
>> The transmitting node inserts start and stop bits into the frame.
>> The transmitting node sends a beacon to notify that a data frame is attached.
>> The receiving node identifies the beginning of a frame by seeing a physical address.
>> The transmitting node sends an out-of-band signal to the receiver about the beginning of the frame.

17) Refer to the exhibit. Which statement describes the media access control methods that are used by the networks in the exhibit?
CCNA-1-Introduction-To-Networking-(V5-+-V6)-Chapter-4-Answers

>> All three networks use CSMA/CA
>> None of the networks require media access control.
>> Network 1 uses CSMA/CD and Network 3 uses CSMA/CA.
>> Network 1 uses CSMA/CA and Network 2 uses CSMA/CD.
>> Network 2 uses CSMA/CA and Network 3 uses CSMA/CD.

18) What is true concerning physical and logical topologies?
>> The logical topology is always the same as the physical topology.
>> Physical topologies are concerned with how a network transfers frames.
>> Physical topologies display the IP addressing scheme of each network.
>> Logical topologies refer to how a network transfers data between devices.

19) Which method of data transfer allows information to be sent and received at the same time?
>> full duplex
>> half duplex
>> multiplex
>> simplex

20) Which statement describes an extended star topology?
>> End devices connect to a central intermediate device, which in turn connects to other central intermediate devices.
>> End devices are connected together by a bus and each bus connects to a central intermediate device.
>> Each end system is connected to its respective neighbor via an intermediate device.
>> All end and intermediate devices are connected in a chain to each other.

21) Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for specifying the encapsulation method used for specific types of media?
>> application
>> transport
>> data link
>> physical

22) A network administrator is designing the layout of a new wireless network. Which three areas of concern should be accounted for when building a wireless network? (Choose three.)
>> mobility options
>> security 
>> interference 
>> coverage area
>> extensive cabling
>> packet collision

23) What are two services performed by the data link layer of the OSI model? (Choose two.)
>> It encrypts data packets.
>> It determines the path to forward packets.
>> It accepts Layer 3 packets and encapsulates them into frames. 
>> It provides media access control and performs error detection.
>> It monitors the Layer 2 communication by building a MAC address table.

24) Match the Following

CCNA-1-Introduction-To-Networking-(V5-+-V6)-Chapter-4-Answers



Now From Here Onward The Solution Is For CCNA v5

1) Fill in the blank with a number.
>> 10,000,000,000 b/s can also be written as 10 Gb/s.

2) How is the magnetic field cancellation effect enhanced in UTP cables?
>> by increasing the thickness of the PVC sheath that encases all the wires
>> by increasing and varying the number of twists in each wire pair
>> by increasing the thickness of the copper wires
>> by decreasing the number of wires that are used to carry data

3) Which statement is correct about multimode fiber?
>> Multimode fiber cables carry signals from multiple connected sending devices.
>> Multimode fiber commonly uses a laser as a light source.
>> SC-SC patch cords are used with multimode fiber cables.
>> Multimode fiber has a thinner core than single-mode fiber..

4) A network administrator is required to upgrade wireless access to end users in a building. To provide data rates up to 1.3 Gb/s and still be backward compatible with older devices, which wireless standard should be implemented?
>> 802.11n
>> 802.11ac
>> 802.11g
>> 802.11b

5) What is one main characteristic of the data link layer?
>> It generates the electrical or optical signals that represent the 1 and 0 on the media.
>> It converts a stream of data bits into a predefined code.
>> It shields the upper layer protocol from being aware of the physical medium to be used in the communication.
>> It accepts Layer 3 packets and decides the path by which to forward a frame to a host on a remote network.

6) What are two characteristics of 802.11 wireless networks? (Choose two.)
>> They use CSMA/CA technology.
>> They use CSMA/CD technology.
>> They are collision-free networks.
>> Stations can transmit at any time.
>> Collisions can exist in the networks.

7) What is the purpose of the FCS field in a frame?
>> to obtain the MAC address of the sending node
>> to verify the logical address of the sending node
>> to compute the CRC header for the data field
>> to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and reception

8) Which statement describes signaling at the physical layer?
>> Sending the signals asynchronously means that they are transmitted without a clock signal.
>> In signaling, a 1 always represents voltage and a 0 always represents the absence of voltage.
>> Wireless encoding includes sending a series of clicks to delimit the frames.
>> Signaling is a method of converting a stream of data into a predefined code

9) The throughput of a FastEthernet network is 80 Mb/s. The traffic overhead for establishing sessions, acknowledgments, and encapsulation is 15 Mb/s for the same time period. What is the goodput for this network?
>> 15 Mb/s
>> 95 Mb/s
>> 55 Mb/s
>> 65 Mb/s
>> 80 Mb/s

10) Place the following
CCNA-1-Introduction-to-Networking-chapter-4

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Wednesday, March 14, 2018

CCNA 1 Introduction To Networking (V5 + V6) Chapter 3 Answers

CCNA 1 Introduction To Networking (V5 + V6) Chapter 3 Answers

Hello, seekers here is solution manual for CCNA 1 Introduction to Networking (v5 + v6) Chapter 3 answers 2018. The answers are marked as red. If you find a new question or we missed a question comment it below.

1) Which PDU format is used when bits are received from the network medium by the NIC of a host?
>> file
>> frame
>> packet
>> segment

2) Refer to the exhibit. HostA is attempting to contact ServerB. Which two statements correctly describe the addressing that HostA will generate in the process? (Choose two.)
Introduction-to-networking-chapter-3-ccna-1-exam-answer

>> A packet with the destination IP address of RouterB.
>> A frame with the destination MAC address of SwitchA.
>> A packet with the destination IP address of RouterA.
>> A frame with the destination MAC address of RouterA.
>> A packet with the destination IP address of ServerB.
>> A frame with the destination MAC address of ServerB.

3) Which PDU is processed when a host computer is de-encapsulating a message at the transport layer of the TCP/IP model?
>> bits
>> frame
>> packet
>> segment

4) Which characteristic describes the default gateway of a host computer?
>> the logical address of the router interface on the same network as the host computer
>> the physical address of the switch interface connected to the host computer
>> the physical address of the router interface on the same network as the host computer
>> the logical address assigned to the switch interface connected to the router

5) Which address does a NIC use when deciding whether to accept a frame?
>> source IP address
>> source MAC address
>> destination IP address
>> destination MAC address
>> source Ethernet address

6) What will happen if the default gateway address is incorrectly configured on a host?
>> The host cannot communicate with other hosts in the local network.
>> The switch will not forward packets initiated by the host.
>> The host will have to use ARP to determine the correct address of the default gateway.
>> The host cannot communicate with hosts in other networks.
>> A ping from the host to 127.0.0.1 would not be successful.

7) Refer to the exhibit. If Host1 were to transfer a file to the server, what layers of the TCP/IP model would be used?
Introduction-to-networking-chapter-3-ccna-1-exam-answer

>> only application and Internet layers
>> only Internet and network access layers
>> only application, Internet, and network access layers
>> application, transport, Internet, and network access layers
>> only application, transport, network, data link, and physical layers
>> application, session, transport, network, data link, and physical layers

8) At which layer of the OSI model would a logical address be encapsulated?
>> physical layer
>> data link layer
>> network layer
>> transport layer

9) Which three layers of the OSI model are comparable in function to the application layer of the TCP/IP model? (Choose three.)
>> application 
>> presentation 
>> session
>> transport
>> data link
>> physical
>> network

10At which layer of the OSI model would a logical address be added during encapsulation??
>> physical layer
>> data link layer
>> network layer
>> transport layer

11Which PDU format is used when bits are received from the network medium by the NIC of a host?
>> file
>> frame
>> packet
>> segment

12Which statement is true about the TCP/IP and OSI models?
>> The TCP/IP transport layer and OSI Layer 4 provide similar services and functions.
>> The TCP/IP network access layer has similar functions to the OSI network layer.
>> The OSI Layer 7 and the TCP/IP application layer provide identical functions.
>> The first three OSI layers describe general services that are also provided by the TCP/IP internet layer.

13What is an advantage of using standards to develop and implement protocols?
>> A particular protocol can only be implemented by one manufacturer.
>> Products from different manufacturers can interoperate successfully.
>> Different manufacturers are free to apply different requirements when implementing a protocol.
>> Standards provide flexibility for manufacturers to create devices that comply with unique requirements.

14What are proprietary protocols?
>> protocols developed by private organizations to operate on any vendor hardware
>> protocols that can be freely used by any organization or vendor
>> protocols developed by organizations who have control over their definition and operation
>> a collection of protocols known as the TCP/IP protocol suite

15What three application layer protocols are part of the TCP/IP protocol suite? (Choose three.)
>> ARP
>> DHCP
>> DNS
>> FTP
>> NAT
>> PPP

16What is an advantage of network devices using open standard protocols?
>> Network communications is confined to data transfers between devices from the same vendor.
>> A client host and a server running different operating systems can successfully exchange data.
>> Internet access can be controlled by a single ISP in each market.
>> Competition and innovation are limited to specific types of products.

17What method can be used by two computers to ensure that packets are not dropped because too much data is being sent too quickly?
>> encapsulation
>> flow control
>> access method
>> response timeout

18What type of communication will send a message to all devices on a local area network?
>> broadcast
>> multicast
>> unicast
>> allcast

19A web client is sending a request for a webpage to a web server. From the perspective of the client, what is the correct order of the protocol stack that is used to prepare the request for transmission?
>> HTTP, IP, TCP, Ethernet
>> HTTP, TCP, IP, Ethernet
>> Ethernet, TCP, IP, HTTP
>> Ethernet, IP, TCP, HTTP

20What process is used to place one message inside another message for transfer from the source to the destination?
>> access control
>> decoding
>> encapsulation
>> flow control

21Which statement is correct about network protocols?
>> Network protocols define the type of hardware that is used and how it is mounted in racks.
>> They define how messages are exchanged between the source and the destination.
>> They all function in the network access layer of TCP/IP.
>> They are only required for exchange of messages between devices on remote networks.

22) Match the description to the organization. (Not all options are used.)


Introduction-to-networking-chapter-3-ccna-1-exam-answer

23) Match the protocol function to the description while taking into consideration that a network client is visiting a web site.

Introduction-to-networking-chapter-3-ccna-1-exam-answer

24) Match each description to its corresponding term


Match-each-description-to-its-corresponding-term

Now From Here Onward The Solution Is For CCNAv5.

25) Which protocol is used by a computer to find the MAC address of the default gateway on an Ethernet network?
>> ARP
>> TCP
>> UDP
>> DHCP

26) If the default gateway is configured incorrectly on the host, what is the impact on communications?
>> The host is unable to communicate on the local network.
>> The host can communicate with other hosts on the local network, but is unable to communicate with hosts on remote networks.
>> The host can communicate with other hosts on remote networks, but is unable to communicate with hosts on the local network.
>> There is no impact on communications.

27) Open the PT Activity. Perform the tasks in the activity instructions and then answer the question. Based on the configured network, what IP address would PC1 and PC2 use as their default gateway?
>> 192.168.1.2
>> 10.1.1.1
>> 172.16.1.1
>> 192.168.1.1
>> 192.168.1.10

28) A user sends an HTTP request to a web server on a remote network. During encapsulation for this request, what information is added to the address field of a frame to indicate the destination?
>> the MAC address of the default gateway
>> the IP address of the destination host
>> the MAC address of the destination host
>> the IP address of the default gateway

29) Refer to the exhibit. PC-A and PC-B are both in VLAN 60. PC-A is unable to communicate with PC-B. What is the problem?
Introduction-to-Networking-Chapter-3-Ccna-1-exam-answer

>> The native VLAN is being pruned from the link.
>> The trunk has been configured with the switchport nonegotiate command.
>> The native VLAN should be VLAN 60.
>> The VLAN that is used by PC-A is not in the list of allowed VLANs on the trunk.*

30) Which command is used to remove only VLAN 20 from a switch?
>> no switchport access vlan 20
>> no vlan 20
>> delete vlan.dat
>> delete flash:vlan.dat

31) A computer in a given network is communicating with a specific group of computers. What type of communication is this?
>> broadcast
>> multicast
>> unicast
>> ARP
>> HTTP

32) Which protocol is responsible for controlling the size and rate of the HTTP messages exchanged between server and client?
>> HTTP
>> ARP
>> TCP
>> DHCP

33) A user is viewing an HTML document located on a web server. What protocol segments the messages and manages the segments in the individual conversation between the web server and the web client?
>> DHCP
>> TCP
>> HTTP
>> ARP

34) Which IEEE standard enables a wireless NIC to connect to a wireless AP that is made by a different manufacturer?
>> 802.1
>> 802.11
>> 802.3
>> 802.2

35) What is a function of Layer 4 of the OSI model?
>> to specify the packet type to be used by the communications
>> to apply framing information to the packet, based on the attached media
>> to represent data to the user, including encoding and dialog control
>> to describe the ordered and reliable delivery of data between source and destination

36) What is a benefit of using a layered model for network communications?
>> fostering competition among device and software vendors by enforcing the compatibility of their products
>> enhancing network transmission performance by defining targets for each layer
>> avoiding possible incompatibility issues by using a common set of developing tools
>> simplifying protocol development by limiting every layer to one function

37) What is the general term that is used to describe a piece of data at any layer of a networking model?
>> frame
>> packet
>> protocol data unit
>> segment

38) Which statement accurately describes a TCP/IP encapsulation process when a PC is sending data to the network?
>> Data is sent from the internet layer to the network access layer.
>> Packets are sent from the network access layer to the transport layer.
>> Segments are sent from the transport layer to the internet layer.
>> Frames are sent from the network access layer to the internet layer.

39) What statement describes the function of the Address Resolution Protocol?
>> ARP is used to discover the IP address of any host on a different network.
>> ARP is used to discover the IP address of any host on the local network.
>> ARP is used to discover the MAC address of any host on a different network.
>> ARP is used to discover the MAC address of any host on the local network.

40) Which address provides a unique host address for data communications at the internet layer?
>> data-link address
>> logical address
>> Layer 2 address
>> physical address

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